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甚么是机电的有功功率和无功功率
阅读:

正文一:

1无功功率

  在(zai)交(jiao)换(huan)电路中,由(you)电源供给负载的电功(gong)(gong)(gong)率有两种;一(yi)种是(shi)有功(gong)(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)率,一(yi)种是(shi)无(wu)功(gong)(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)率。

  有功(gong)功(gong)率(lv)是(shi)保(bao)持用电修(xiu)建泛(fan)(fan)泛(fan)(fan)运(yun)行所需的电功(gong)率(lv),也便是(shi)将电能转换为(wei)其(qi)他形(xing)式能量(liang)(机械(xie)能(neng)、光(guang)能(neng)、热(re)能(neng))的(de)电功率。比方:5.5千(qian)瓦(wa)的电动机便是(shi)把(ba)5.5千(qian)瓦的(de)电能转(zhuan)换为机械(xie)能,带动水(shui)泵抽(chou)水(shui)或脱(tuo)粒机脱(tuo)粒;各种照明修建将电能转(zhuan)换为光(guang)能,供人们保存(cun)和工作照明。有(you)功功率的(de)意味用P显现,单位有瓦(W)、千瓦(wa)(kW)、兆(zhao)瓦(MW)

  无功(gong)功(gong)率对(dui)比(bi)浮泛(fan),它是用于电(dian)路内(nei)电(dian)场与磁场的(de)交换,并(bing)用来在电(dian)气(qi)修建(jian)(jian)中建(jian)(jian)立(li)和保持磁场的(de)电(dian)功(gong)率。它不对(dui)外作(zuo)功(gong),而是变革(ge)为其他形式(shi)的(de)能量。凡(fan)是有电(dian)磁线圈的(de)电(dian)气(qi)修建(jian)(jian),要建(jian)(jian)立(li)磁场,就要花销无功(gong)功(gong)率。比(bi)方40瓦(wa)的日光灯(deng),除需40多(duo)瓦有功(gong)功(gong)率(镇流器也需花销一单方面有功功率(lv))来发光外,还需(xu)80乏支配的无(wu)功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率供镇流器(qi)的线圈(quan)建立交变磁(ci)场(chang)用(yong)。由于它不对外做功(gong)(gong),才被称之为(wei)“无(wu)功(gong)(gong)”。无(wu)功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率的意(yi)味用(yong)Q显现,单位为乏(Var)或千(qian)乏(kVar)

  无(wu)功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率决不是无(wu)勤恳率,它的(de)用处(chu)很大。电动(dong)机(ji)须要建立和保持(chi)改变磁(ci)场(chang),使转(zhuan)子(zi)(zi)转(zhuan)动(dong),从(cong)而带动(dong)机(ji)械步履(lv),电动(dong)机(ji)的(de)转(zhuan)子(zi)(zi)磁(ci)场(chang)便是靠从(cong)电源取得无(wu)功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率建立的(de)。变压器也一(yi)样须要无(wu)功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率,才干使变压器的(de)一(yi)次线(xian)(xian)圈产生磁(ci)场(chang),在二次线(xian)(xian)圈感应出电压。因(yin)此,不不功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率,电动(dong)机(ji)就不会转(zhuan)动(dong),变压器也不行变压,交换兵戈器不会吸合。为(wei)了景象形(xing)象地声名这(zhei)个(ge)(ge)标题问题,现举一(yi)个(ge)(ge)例(li)子(zi)(zi):农村(cun)修水(shui)利(li)须要开(kai)挖土方(fang)运(yun)土,运(yun)土时用竹(zhu)筐装(zhuang)满土,挑走的(de)土比(bi)方(fang)是有功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率,挑空竹(zhu)筐就比(bi)方(fang)是无(wu)功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率,竹(zhu)筐并(bing)不是没用,不竹(zhu)筐泥土何(he)如(ru)运(yun)到堤上呢?

  在泛(fan)泛(fan)情况下(xia),用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)修(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)不(bu)只要从电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源取得有功(gong)功(gong)率,同(tong)时还(hai)须要从电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源取得无功(gong)功(gong)率。如(ru)果(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网中的(de)无功(gong)功(gong)率供不(bu)应求,用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)修(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)就不(bu)充(chong)沛(pei)的(de)无功(gong)功(gong)率来(lai)建(jian)立泛(fan)泛(fan)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁场(chang),辣么,这(zhei)些(xie)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)修(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)就不(bu)行(xing)保持在额外情况下(xia)工(gong)作,用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)修(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)的(de)端电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压就要下(xia)降(jiang),从而影响(xiang)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)修(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)的(de)泛(fan)泛(fan)运行(xing)。

  无功功率对供、用电产生(sheng)一定的不良影响,要紧发挥(hui)在:

  (1)降低(di)发机电有功功率的输入。

  (2)降低输、变电修建的供电才干。

  (3)变成清楚电(dian)压损失增(zeng)大和电(dian)能耗(hao)损的增(zeng)加。

  (4)变成(cheng)低功率因数(shu)运行和电(dian)(dian)压下降(jiang),使电(dian)(dian)气修建容量得不到丰裕发(fa)挥。

  从发机电(dian)和高(gao)压输(shu)电(dian)线供给的无功(gong)(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)率,远远满足(zu)不了负荷的须要,所以在电(dian)网中(zhong)要设置装备摆(bai)设少(shao)量无功(gong)(gong)(gong)补偿拆卸(xie)来补充无功(gong)(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)率,以包管(guan)用(yong)户对无功(gong)(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)率的须要,这(zhei)样(yang)用(yong)电(dian)修建才(cai)干在额外(wai)电(dian)压下工作。这(zhei)便(bian)是(shi)电(dian)网须要装设无功(gong)(gong)(gong)补偿拆卸(xie)的道(dao)理。

2功率(lv)因数

  电(dian)(dian)网中的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)力负荷如电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)、变压(ya)器等,属于(yu)既有电(dian)(dian)阻又(you)有电(dian)(dian)感(gan)的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)感(gan)性(xing)负载。电(dian)(dian)感(gan)性(xing)负载的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)和(he)电(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)相量间存在(zai)着一个相位(wei)差,日常(chang)平凡用相位(wei)角φ的(de)(de)(de)余弦cosφ来显现(xian)。cosφ称为功率因(yin)数(shu),又叫(jiao)力率。功率因(yin)数(shu)是反映电(dian)(dian)力用(yong)户用(yong)电(dian)(dian)修建公道(dao)利用(yong)状况、电(dian)(dian)能利用(yong)水安然平(ping)静(jing)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)经管程度的(de)一项严重方(fang)针。

  功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)(yin)数(shu)分为自然(ran)功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)(yin)数(shu)、瞬间(jian)功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)(yin)数(shu)和加(jia)权均衡功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)(yin)数(shu)。

  (1)自然功(gong)(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu):是(shi)指(zhi)用电修建(jian)不安顿(dun)无功(gong)(gong)补偿修建(jian)时的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu),大要(yao)说用电修建(jian)本身所(suo)具有的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu)。自然功(gong)(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu)的(de)(de)高(gao)卑要(yao)紧取(qu)决于用电修建(jian)的(de)(de)负荷性质,电阻性负荷(白(bai)炽(chi)灯(deng)、电阻炉)的功(gong)率因数较高,便是1,而电感性负荷(电(dian)动机、电(dian)焊(han)机)的功率因(yin)数对比低,都小于1

  (2)瞬间功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu):是(shi)指在(zai)某一瞬间由(you)功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu)表读出的(de)功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu)。瞬间功(gong)率(lv)因(yin)数(shu)是(shi)随着(zhe)用电修(xiu)建的(de)典范、负荷的(de)巨细和电压的(de)高卑(bei)而时辰(chen)在(zai)变革。

  (3)加权均衡功率(lv)因(yin)数:是指在(zai)一定(ding)工夫段内功率(lv)因(yin)数的(de)均衡值,其计算公式为:

  前(qian)进功率因数的方(fang)法有两种(zhong),一种(zhong)是改良自然功率因数,另(ling)外一种(zhong)是安顿(dun)野生补偿拆卸。

正(zheng)文二:

1   有功(gong)功(gong)率

有功(gong)功(gong)率(lv)是保持(chi)用电修建泛(fan)泛(fan)运行(xing)所需的电功(gong)率(lv),也便是将电能(neng)转换(huan)为其他形式能(neng)量 (机械(xie)能(neng)、光(guang)能(neng)、热(re)能(neng))的电(dian)功(gong)率。有功(gong)功(gong)率太低(di)导(dao)致线损增加(jia)、容量(liang)下降、修建利用率下降,从而导(dao)致电(dian)能浪费(fei)加(jia)大。

2   无功功率:

无功(gong)功(gong)率:电网(wang)中的(de)(de)感(gan)性负(fu)载(如机(ji)电,扼(e)流(liu)圈,变压器(qi),感(gan)应式加热器(qi)及电焊机(ji)等(deng))都会产(chan)生(sheng)不(bu)同程度的(de)(de)电滞,即所(suo)谓的(de)(de)电感(gan)。感(gan)性负(fu)载具有这样一种特点(dian) -----即使所(suo)加(jia)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)变革方向(xiang),感(gan)性(xing)负载(zai)的(de)这类滞(zhi)后(hou)仍能将(jiang)电(dian)(dian)流的(de)方向(xiang)(如正向(xiang))保持一段工夫。一旦存(cun)在了这类电(dian)(dian)流与电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)之间的(de)相(xiang)位(wei)(wei)差,就会产生负功率(lv),并被反映到电(dian)(dian)网(wang)中(zhong)。电(dian)(dian)流电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)再次相(xiang)位(wei)(wei)相(xiang)像时,又须(xu)要相(xiang)像巨(ju)细的(de)电(dian)(dian)能在感(gan)性(xing)负载(zai)中(zhong)建(jian)立(li)磁场,这类磁场反向(xiang)电(dian)(dian)能就被称作无功功率(lv)。

无功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率对比浮泛,它(ta)是用于电(dian)路(lu)内电(dian)场(chang)(chang)与(yu)磁(ci)(ci)场(chang)(chang)的(de)交换,并(bing)用来在电(dian)气修建中建立(li)和保持磁(ci)(ci)场(chang)(chang)的(de)电(dian)功(gong)(gong)率。它(ta)不对外(wai)做功(gong)(gong),而是变革(ge)为(wei)其他形式的(de)能量(liang)。凡是有电(dian)磁(ci)(ci)线圈的(de)电(dian)气修建,要建立(li)磁(ci)(ci)场(chang)(chang),就(jiu)要花销无功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率。

无功功率太高(gao)

1)无(wu)功功率会导(dao)致电流增大和视在功率增加,导(dao)致系统容量下降(jiang);

2)无(wu)功功率增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),会使(shi)总电流增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),从而(er)使(shi)修建和清楚(chu)的耗损(sun)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia);

3)使清楚的压降增大,冲击性无(wu)功负载还会使电(dian)压狠恶波动。


不锈钢潜水泵机电

不锈钢潜水泵机电

不锈钢潜水泵机电


 

 

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